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REVIEW
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 33  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 125-134

Tobacco and smoking cessation


1 Department of Psychiatry, Changhua Christian Hospital; Department of Psychiatry, Lukang Christian Hospital, Evergreen Campus; Department of Counseling, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua; Department of Occupational Therapy, Asia University, Wufeng; Department of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
2 Department of Psychiatry, Lukang Christian Hospital, Evergreen Campus, Changhua, Taiwan

Correspondence Address:
Nan- Ying Chiu
No. 888, Section 2, Lutung Road, Lukang Town, Changhua County 505
Taiwan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/TPSY.TPSY_26_19

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Background: Tobacco products have been used by human for a long history. The prevalence of tobacco use varies in different countries. Tobacco use is different from tobacco use disorder. Tobacco use disorder is a problematic pattern of tobacco use leading to significant distress or impairment. Cigarette smoking is a chronic relapsing substance use disorder caused by addiction to nicotine. Tobacco smoke contains over 7,000 different chemical compounds, of which 93 of them are harmful substances. Methods: In this review, the authors intended to address the issues of harmful effects of cigarette smoking and how to cease smoking. Results: Abundant studies showed that tobacco use is the main risk factor of morbidity and mortality in the world. People who use tobacco products should be advised to quit smoking and offered appropriate treatment. It is better for health-care providers to make the smoking cessation treatment as a standard component of medical care. Data from evidence-based literature showed that smoking cessation therapy can significantly raise smoking cessation rates and should be routinely in persons who are willing to quit tobacco smoking. Smoking cessation treatment includes psychosocial interventions and pharmacological treatment, which may be used in combination. Nonpharmacological management may be individual or group sessions, and it may include motivational interviewing, cognitive behavioral therapy, and others. Delivery formats of stop-smoking interventions are varied. Pharmacological therapy includes nicotine replacement treatment and smoking aids such as bupropion and varenicline. Morbidity and mortality rates are decreased with tobacco cessation at any point in time, although cessation before the age of 40 years has the most significant effect. Conclusion: The Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act took effect since 1997 in Taiwan. Rates of Taiwanese tobacco use have been steadily declining. Brilliant achievements in the field of tobacco control in Taiwan draw international attention.


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